Equine Solutions Catalog Page 22

GMO-Free and ORGANIC Equine products Available
(see ABC ORGANIC Equine in shopping cart Catagory)

My personal favorite food for my horses includes:
Beet Pulp, whole Flax Seed and Rice Bran especially for my
insulin-resistant horses..

Flax, Satin Finish, HYPP 1:1 info, Amino-3

Amino-3 - Nutritional Support for Anhidrosis & Melanomas
Amino-3 is a nutritional equine feed supplement developed to help the body balance dopamine levels.

Amino-3 is a nutritional equine feed supplement developed to help the body balance dopamine levels. Dopamine is used by several organs of the body and can be depleted quickly. The brain utilizes dopamine levels first, followed by the cardiovascular system and then the sweating system. If the dopamine level becomes depleted, it is easy to see how a horse can develop Anhidrosis. Helpful for melanomas.

Amino-3 is safe to use on pregnant and lactating mares and has not tested positive for drugs. Use ABC Plus and FC Stress System with this.

Anhidrosis is the inability to sweat. it is often a result of excess stress and can reduce your horse's performance by 15% to 20%. If heat and humidity are added to the equation a horse's health will begin to deteriorate. The ability to sweat maintains the body's interior core temperature. This is our built in air conditioning and it's a physiological response that cannot be comprised.

Amino - 3 is a nutritional equine feed supplement developed to help the body balance dopamine levels. Dopamine is used by several organs of the body an can be depleted quickly. The brain utilizes dopamine levels first followed by the cardiovascular system and then the sweating system. If the dopamine level becomes depleted, it is easy to see how a horse can develop Anhidrosis. Amino - 3 is safe to use on pregnant and lactating mares and has not tested positive for drugs.

Melanomas are tumors, primarily of the skin, that often appear on white or gray horses. As with tumors in humans, no cause has yet been established for most types. The new tissue growth serves no function and there seems to be no limitations to how large and fast a tumor will grow. If a melanoma is malignant, it will spread rapidly through the body and cause death more quickly than most other tumors.

Amino-3 has been used as a preventative method at a physiological level to reduce melanomas. It is believed amino acids contained in Amino-3 reach the pigment level of the skin. There has been some indication that white or gray horses started early on Amino-3 are less likely to develop melanomas.

Directions for Horses:

Thoroughbred - feed one scoop for 4 days, then one scoop twice daily.

All other breeds - feed two scoops twice daily for 4 days, then one scoop twice daily.

Feed for 3 months to determine results.

Must feed ABC's Plus and Free Choice Stress System.

Item No. 86216ozjar Size 8 oz (30 day supply) Amino-3 - 8 OZ JAR PRICE:
Current Pricing is listed in the Shopping Cart.
See Catagories on the Left Side in alphabetical order, as they are links to sizes and prices and
the BUY NOW button.
Click on the little blue grocery bag.

Quick! Take Me To The Shopping Cart & Check Out!...


FLAX (Ground and Stabilized)

Flax is a good source of omega-3 essential fatty acids, magnesium, potassium, B vitamins, protein, zinc and fiber;
components needed to maintain consistent health at high performance levels.

Item No. 45317BKT Size: 17 pound bucket (64 day supply) PRICE:

Item No. 45350BAG Size: 50 pound bag PRICE:
Current Pricing is listed in the Shopping Cart.
See Catagories on the Left Side in alphabetical order, as they are links to sizes and prices and
the BUY NOW button.
Click on the little blue grocery bag.

Quick! Take Me To The Shopping Cart & Check Out!...

There are many other great resources for a bag of Stabilized Flax at your local feed stores which will save you on shipping costs!
You can even get whole flax seeds which you can hydrate or grind, I prefer keeping them whole and hydrating.
You can also find flax seed oil.
Check your local feed stores for the different brands they may be carrying. I get mine at our local Farm Co-op.

I personally for my horses, hydrate whole flax seed in
my feed mix.

The Many Benefits of Flaxseeds a FREE article
By Jennifer Gruenemay, LifeScript Staff Writer

Flaxseeds have a long history of medicinal use, being traced back to the ancient Babylonians who dwelled
over 5,000 years ago. The earliest mention of flaxseeds in recorded history occurred in 650 B.C. when
Hippocrates wrote about the benefits of flaxseeds for easing abdominal pains. Today, these seeds are cultivated
both for use in the textile industry and as a nutritional aide. Nutritionally speaking, flaxseeds are known to be
a great source of omega-3 fatty acids and lignans, both of which have demonstrated the power to combat
heart disease and certain types of cancer.

Why Flaxseed is Good for You
As a natural source of fiber and one of the easiest ways to supplement your diet essential fatty acids, flaxseeds
are becoming a pantry staple in many health-conscious consumers’ homes.

One of the greatest benefits of flaxseeds and flaxseed oil is that they are a good source of omega-3s, which
is a type of essential fatty acid.

The key word to remember here is “essential,” which means that the body is incapable of producing this
compound on its own.

Therefore, it must rely on dietary intake to receive proper amounts of this health-promoting nutrient.

Proper intake of omega 3 fatty acids is essential to good health.

Unfortunately, the typical American diet, which is low in fish and rarely includes flaxseeds, does not
provide sufficient amounts of this essential fat, making supplementation almost mandatory.

Will you notice a difference in your health if you do not get enough omega 3s in your diet?

It’s possible, since dry skin, hair and nails are all signs of an omega 3 deficiency.

What you may not notice due to a lack of essential omega 3 fatty acids in your diet is what is even more
important – the health of your heart.

Proper intake of omega 3s, which can easily be achieved by eating more fatty fish and flaxseeds, has been
shown to lower both cholesterol and blood pressure, which helps to protect against heart disease.

Since heart disease is currently ranked as the #1 killer of both men and women in the U.S., eating more
flaxseeds and fatty fish would be an intelligent preventative measure to take against this deadly killer.

More Benefits of Flaxseeds
Not only do flaxseeds provide heart-healthy omega 3s, but they also are a rich source of lignans,
a specialized type of fiber.

Lignans have phytochemical-like properties that may fight colon, prostate, breast, and
skin cancers, as well as ease some of the symptoms of menopause.

Flaxseeds are the most abundant source of lignans, boasting up to 800 times more than other foods.

Flaxseeds have also been found to:

- Have anti-inflammatory properties that may be useful in the treatment of lupus and gout.

- Dissolve gallstones.

- Strengthen and fortify hair, nail and skin, as well as speed the healing of skin lesions.

- Help clear up acne, rosacea, eczema, psoriasis, and even help heal sunburns more quickly.

- Facilitate nerve impulses, which may prove to be useful in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy,
Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.

- Relieve constipation and diverticulosis.

- Regulate mood and decrease the tendency toward depression.

If you want to start experiencing the many benefits of flaxseeds, take a tablespoon of flaxseed oil
a day and sprinkle flaxseeds on your yogurt and salads.

Make sure to keep flaxseed oil cold and stored in an opaque container to avoid damage from light and heat.

Do not cook with flaxseeds, since heat destroys their beneficial effect.

Some people are allergic to flaxseeds, so if you have a tendency toward food allergies, please use
caution if trying flaxseeds for the first time.

Benefits of Flax
What is flax?

Flax is one of the most ancient of useful herbs. Its Latin name, Linum usitatissimum, means "most useful."
Flaxseed excavated from ancient Greek archeological sites has been dated back to 1900 to 1700 B.C., and
the use of flaxseed is inscribed on tablets at Pylos. Both the Greek historian Thucydides and the Roman Pliny
mention the use of flax for food. In fact, so impressed with this gift of nature Pliny wrote, "What department
is to be found in active life in which flax is not employed?" Of flax Bartholomew had this to say, "None herbe
is so needfull to so many dyurrse uses to mankynde as is the flexe." And Dioscorides extolled flaxseed's
power for "mollifying all inflammation inwardly and outwardly." Hippocrates encouraged the use of flaxseed
for the relief of abdominal pains, while Theophrastus recommended flax mucilage as a cough remedy.
Hildegarde of Bingen used flax meal in hot compresses for the treatment of both external and internal ailments.

The value of flax to these early cultures is reflected in the rich folklore that surrounds the plant. Flax was believed
to be a blessed plant; one that could bring good fortune and restore health. French leader Charlemagne, so
impressed with the herb's culinary, medicinal, and domestic usefulness, passed laws and regulations requiring
its cultivation and consumption. Flax was much loved and widely cultivated throughout Europe after that,
and its cultivation and use continued to expand to other lands and cultures.

I feed this mix once daily. If I have a horse that
needs supplements twice daily I'll hold out one dog food scoop full
for next morning feeding.

Per Horse - 1 to 2 cups dry measured BP pellets without molasses,
Hydrate Beet Pulp with 1 to 2 qts hot water, (adjust as needed, fluffy not soppy)
1 ounce or so (up to 2 cups) apple cider vinegar,
from 1 teaspoon up to 3 Tablespoons garlic powder/granulated
per horse, 1/3 cup up to 2/3 cup whole flax seed per horse, 1/2 cup corn oil.

Mix into the hydrated mix when ready to feed, 1 cup stabilized rice bran (Satin Finish) per horse,
Equine-Zyme with BG or Sr Equine-Zyme with BG, ABC's Selenium/Vit E,
Humic Shale Ore.

Feed 2 to 3 dog food (1 qt) scoops per horse, in my case as much as needed to
help horse regain some wt if they lost alot. Very safe feed mix. Slow metabolizing
so is great in the winter too, keeps them satisfied and warm.

I also top dress the two sister mares with ABC PLUS and HOOF and the Gelding gets ABC HOOF also.

I'm mixing for 9 to 11 horses usually.
So I'm guessing for one horse. About 2 qts hot water to 1 to 2 cups dry
Measured beet pulp per horse. 1 oz apple cider vinegar, up to
3 T garlic powder/granulated per horse.

My mixing is in a 5 gal bucket. 2 gallons hot water with
About 1 1/2 to 2 inches in the bottom of 1 gallon jug of
Apple cider vinegar. In the other gallon I put 1 teaspoon per
Horse up to 3 Tablespoons per horse of the garlic and fill
With hot water and shake to dissolve. I use 3 T per horse
Year round of the garlic. If you are just starting out, go with
1 Teaspoon and build up to 3 Tablespoons over a little time
Allowing the horse to get used to it. Mine love it. Smells
Like Doritos and they lick the buckets clean. You want
The beet pulp after hydrated to be fluffy and damp. Not
Soggy and fully hydrated. No little hard pieces preferably.
I just pour in some Corn Oil and stir it all around and put
the lid on and allow it to hydrate for 4 hours or more. I mix
this in the morning and feed at evening feeding and same some
for next morning when I have horses getting supplements
twice daily.

During the winter I feed more than I do in the summer, still
Mostly one time per day at dinner to keep them warm through
The nite and not cold or massively hungry in the morning.
I can easily feed as late as noon and not have anyone colicy
Or massively hungry and mad at me. During the summer the
Garlic and applecider vinegar really help with the insects and
I always give them their supplements daily anyway.

NOTE: Never feed this beet pulp dry. It plumps up fast and
Sticks in their throat and they choke. This requires
An ACE shot in the muscle from your vet to allow them
To relax their throat enough for it to go down. (I've
Done this 3 different times so "don't do it", they will
Eventually choke on it and get very distressed and anxious)

The Satin Finish bag says, two and 3 yr old 1# to 1 /2#'S per day
Mature horses based on 1000#'S - 2#'S heavy use down to 1#/day
Not in use horse. Extreme use cases endurance racing, eventing etc.
Custom programs available 1-800-742-3272 Satin Finsh Wilcott Farms, Inc.
P.O. Box 5, Willows, CA 95988


SATIN FINISH tm - Stabilized Rice Bran by NutraCea Technology, No Longer Stocked by us.
http://www.nutracea.com/AnimalNutrition Visit their website for more nutritional benefits info.

I highly recommend using it. I personally pick it up at my local farm co-op feed store.
105 anitioxidants! Feed no more than 1/2 to 1 cup daily or you may get phosphorous
out of balance.


Satin Finish is Stabilized Rice Bran and typically contains 20% oil, composed of the three major fats; palmitic, oleic and linoleic, and important vitamins such as Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin. Also provides all 18 essential Amino Acids,
(protein building blocks for healthy new cell growth) and over 100 Antioxidants to help neutralize free-radical's running around trying to damage those healthy new cells.

Satin Finish will help your horse perform better without becoming uncontrollable.

Item No. 183-40 Size 40 lb bag (80 day supply)

**To balance calcium and phosphorous rations when feeding Flax or Satin Finish we suggest you free choice
Rush Creek Mineral.

The Satin Finish bag says, two and 3 yr old 1# to 1 /2#'S per day
Mature horses based on 1000#'S - 2#'S heavy use down to 1#/day
Not in use horse. Extreme use cases endurance racing, eventing etc.
Custom programs available 1-800-742-3272 Satin Finsh Wilcott Farms, Inc.
P.O. Box 5, Willows, CA 95988

Rice bran is a rich source of hypoallergenic protein, oil, dietary fiber, and nutrients essential to life.
Rice bran is unique in the plant kingdom. It is the only major cereal that contains all of the essential
amino acids, the necessary building blocks of all protein in the body.

Rice bran contains 18-23% oil, which is high in polyunsaturates and monounsaturates and is extraordinary
in heat stability. Rice bran oil contains significant amounts of the essential fatty acids, linolenic acid, and
linoleic acid that are necessary in order to maintain full health as well as a broad range of nutraceutical
compounds that have been demonstrated to have remarkable therapeutic properties.

Nutraceuticals are natural compounds that have therapeutic effects on human systems. Some of these
compounds, including a newly discovered complex of Vitamin E called “tocotrienols,” and gamma oryzanol,
which is found only in rice bran, have been demonstrated to moderate blood serum cholesterol and reduce
triglycerides in hyperlipidemic individuals. Tocotrienols are being investigated for anti-cancer properties
in a broad spectrum of different cancers. These compounds are potent antioxidants that protect the
body from free-radical damage.

Rice bran also contains very high concentrations of B-complex vitamins. The B vitamins are vital to the
health of the entire body but especially for the health of the nervous system and brain. Rice bran also
contains beta carotene, a precursor of Vitamin A, and other carotenoids as well as most of the
important minerals (low in Ca) and fiber.

Rice bran has a density of protein, vitamins, minerals and more than 120 known naturally occurring antioxidants.

WebMD Medical News Reviewed By Gary Vogin, MD

April 10, 2002 -- Diabetics may have a new weapon to help them lower their blood sugar levels.
Rice bran was able to lower blood glucose by up to 30% in a small group of patients with type
1 or 2 diabetes participating in a pilot study.

Researchers report that one out of four diabetics taking part in the 57-subject study were able to reduce
their daily injection of insulin or medication dosages after adding stabilized rice bran to their diets for just
two months. The findings were reported in the March issue of the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry.

"These are preliminary findings, and they need to be duplicated in a larger group of patients taking
rice bran as a nutritional supplement for longer periods," says lead researcher Asaf A. Qureshi, PhD.
"But in this study, rice bran proved to be very good at lowering blood glucose levels."

Qureshi and colleagues at Advanced Medical Research in Madison, Wis., also found that patients
with elevated cholesterol who consumed 20 grams per day of stabilized rice bran lowered their total
serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between 5% and 15%.

The rice bran formulations evaluated by the researchers are manufactured by the California nutraceutical
company NutraStar Inc. In company literature, rice bran is touted as "the most nutritious food on earth,"
and NutraStar markets its four rice bran products for a host of conditions including arthritis, constipation, and joint problems.

But the diabetes research is the first human trial to offer scientific evidence of rice bran's benefit.
Studies have shown that eating a high-fiber diet lowers blood sugar levels, but the water-soluble
rice bran that worked best in the study was not high in fiber.

Nutritionist Barbara Levine, RD, PhD, agrees that larger trials are needed to confirm the study's findings.
But she says that the promising early findings are intriguing. Levine is director of the
Human Nutrition Program at New York's Rockefeller University.

Levine cited findings from the ongoing Framingham Heart Study showing that obese people with
type 2 diabetes have a 99% chance of developing heart disease. The CDC now estimates
that 35 million Americans have diabetes.

"Right now there is very little out there for diabetics, other than medication," she says. "There is an
epidemic of diabetes in this country, and it is largely linked to the epidemic of obesity. The most important
thing diabetics can do is keep their weight under control and eat appropriate foods. But if soluble rice bran can help, I'm all for it."

For centuries, mothers in India believed that the rice bran
which encapsulates white rice held certain healing powers
that worked miracles on their ill children. The outer layer of rice, the ‘rice bran’, contains 65% of the nutrients found
in the kernel. In other words, over two thirds of the rice kernel’s nutrients lie in the bran. Unfortunately, the life span
of the fragile rice bran is short, rendering it useless within hours after being milled from the kernel. Because the
outer layer contains an enzyme called lipase which causes the rice to become rancid within hours after harvesting,
the bran has always been removed and discarded. Efforts to prolong the life-sustaining power of the rice bran were
fruitless. For the past 50 years, every major rice growing country in the world has searched for a way to stabilize
the bran, but without success. A major breakthrough in extrusion technology has now unlocked the means to stabilize
the rice bran while maintaining and enhancing its nutritional value. The stabilization is accomplished without the
use of chemicals or any additives. This special processing of rice concentrates has combined extracts and stabilized
fractions to deliver the ultimate nutritional complex. The rice bran has been transformed into one of the most
valuable food resources ever discovered. In fact, it is believed that Stabilized Rice Bran is the most bioavailable whole food on earth.

Why do you need it?

Rice bran is one of the most potent sources of phytochemicals of any food. It contains all of the vitamins, minerals,
and other nutrients needed to help fight disease, aging and to help promote health. According to research and clinical
studies conducted at the University of Wisconsin, it contains compounds which dramatically reduce harmful
cholesterol levels (LDL), while increasing the good cholesterol (HDL) required for a healthy coronary artery system.

Certain antioxidants that are present in Stabilized Rice Bran have been documented to support the slowing of the
aging process and to battle free radicals that are linked to degenerative conditions. Antioxidant supplements work
by boosting the immune system to help fight off free radical damage. Free radical damage is caused by oxidation
with the cells; antioxidants neutralize the damage of oxidation. For example, the power of tocopherols has a positive
effect on cholesterol levels. These antioxidants boost the body’s ability to regenerate itself while bolstering its
energy and stamina. Their ability to help regulate blood sugar levels may prove helpful to diabetics and others
who suffer from hypoglycemia.

HYPP 1:1 Mineral - Free Choice Nutritional Support - NO LONGER AVAILABLE for info only.
feed in place of Rushcreek Mineral for HYPP Positive Horses.

HYPP 1:1 Mineral is a complete mineral supplement that will balance anything from grass to alfalfa hay.
This product is potassium free and made especially for HYPP horses. Fed FREE CHOICE, they will eat
as much as they need. We have 2 hole feeders available see under Feeders, Bucket Opener, Syringes tab.
HYPP positive horses cannot have potassium.

Calcium (Ca) min 8.0% max. 9.5%
Phosphorus (P) min 8.0%
Sodium (Na) min 2.0% max 2.5%
Copper (Cu) min 1,000 PPM
Manganese (Mn) min 2,000 PPM
Selenium (Se) min 30 PPM
Zinc (Zn) min 2,500 PPM
Vitamin A min 200,000IU/LB

Ingredients: Dicalcium Phosphate, Wheat Middlings, Monsodium Phosphate, Dehydrated Alfalfa Meal, Calcium Carbonate, Dried Lactobacilllus, Acidiphilus Fermentation Product, Corn Germ Meal, Copper Sulfate, Soybean Oil, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Sodium Selenite, Natural Source of Vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate), Sulfur, Fish Meal, Dried Whole Milk, Dried Kelp, Feeding Oatmeal, Dried Tomato Pomace, Yeast Culture, Vinegar, Choline Chloride, Sodium Sulfate, Ferric Sulfate, Magnesium Oxide, Zinc Sulfate, Niacin Supplement, Colbalt Sulfate, DL-Methionine, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Ferrous Fumarate, Vitamin A Acetate, L-Lysine, Lecithin, Sodium Bentonite, Biotin, Carotene, Vitamin D Supplement, Ascorbic Acid (A Preservative), Zinc Methionine Complex, Hydrochloric Acid, Riboflavin, Yucca Schidigera, Folic Acid, Algae Meal, Diatomaceous Earth, Cobalt Choline Citrate Complex, Ferric Choline Citrate, Calcium Pantothenate, Copper Choline Citrate Complex, Magnesium Amino Acid Chelate, Zinc Amino Acid Chelate, Calicum Amino Acid Chelate, Iron Amino Acid Chelate, Manganese Amino Acid Chelate, Copper Amino Acid Chelate, Cobalt Amino Acid Chelate, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex (Source of Vitamin K Activity), Thiamine Mononitrate, Ferrous Carbonate, Hydrated Sodium Calcium Alumino Silicate, Peppermint, Violet Leaves, Garlic, Horseradish, Parsley Dandelion, Geranium, Ginger, Clover.

Offer free choice separate from other parts of the ration.

Item No #801-3 3lb

Item No. #801-R 25lb Bag

Current Facts About Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis (HYPP) Disease
Sharon J. Spier, D.V.M., Ph.D. University of California at Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Medicine

What is HYPP?

Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis Disease (HYPP) is a muscular disease that affects both horses and humans. It is caused by a hereditary genetic defect that disrupts a protein called a sodium ion channel, a tiny gateway in the membrane of muscle cells. The genetic defect disrupts the channel's normal opening and closing, such that uncontrolled sodium influxes occur. These influxes in turn change the voltage current of muscle cells, causing uncontrolled muscle twitching or profound muscle weakness. High levels of potassium in the blood usually are present when the disruptions in the ion channel occur.

What Are Effects of HYPP?

Horses with HYPP can experience unpredictable attacks of paralysis which, in severe cases, can lead to collapse and sudden death. The cause of death usually is cardiac arrest and /or respiratory failure. The disease is characterized by intermittent episodes of muscle tremors manifested by generalized or localized shaking, trembling and weakness. Occasionally, episodes are accompanied by respiratory noises resulting from paralysis of the muscles of the upper airway (larynx and pharynx). In cases of mild attacks, muscle tremors may be so subtle as to be detectable only by an experienced clinician performing EMG testing.

Can Symptoms of HYPP Vary in Severity?

Clinical signs of HYPP do vary widely among different horses. Homozygous horses are affected more severely than heterozygous horses. Under ideal management practices, the defective gene does not appear to have adverse effects, but stress and/or increased potassium in the serum can trigger clinical signs of muscle dysfunction. Why some horses manifest severe signs of the disease and other exhibit little or no signs is unknown but currently under investigation. Unfortunately, a horse carrying the defective gene but showing minimal signs has the same chance of passing the gene to future generations as does the affected horse with severe signs.

What is the Origin of the Genetic Defect Causing HYPP?

The original genetic defect causing HYPP was a natural mutation that occurred as part of the evolutionary process. The majority of such mutations, which are constantly occurring, are not compatible with survival. However, the genetic mutation causing HYPP produced a functional, yet altered, sodium ion channel. This gene mutation is not a product of inbreeding. The gene mutation causing HYPP inadvertently became widespread when breeders sought to produce horses with heavy musculature.

Is HYPP Limited To A Particular Bloodline of Horses?

HYPP is associated with horses of heavy musculature, but this does not mean that all horses with well developed musculature are afflicted with the disease. The mutant gene causing HYPP presently has been identified in the descendents of the horse "Impressive." Research has not yet been performed on other bloodlines to ascertain whether the same or similar genetic mutation existing in other bloodlines also may cause HYPP. Since "Impressive" descendants are so numerous, the genetic mutation in the bloodline is widespread. Theoretically, it is possible that other mutations causing HYPP in different bloodlines may be more difficult to identify because they are not so widespread.

HYPP is unique in that it is the first equine disease in which breeding and molecular genetics have yielded a specific genetic mutation identifiable with a named bloodline. It only is a matter of time before other heritable conditions in various bloodlines likewise can be identified.

How is HYPP Inherited In Horses?

Based upon breeding trials conducted at the Equine Research Laboratory at the University of California at Davis, it was determined that HYPP is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, which means it can occur in both males and females. The trait is inherited from generation to generation with equal frequency; it does not get "diluted" out. Breeding an affected heterozygous horse (N/H) to a normal horse (N/N) will result in approximately 50% normal offspring, while 50% will carry the defective gene (N/H). Breeding an affected homozygote (H/H) will result in all offspring carrying the gene mutation, regardless of the status of the other parent.

Normal (N/N) offspring safely can be bred, without fear of HYPP being inherited. Selective breeding to normal (N/N) horses could entirely eliminate HYPP disease. As HYPP is inherited as a dominant condition, it can and is being spread to other breeds. It is to everyone's benefit to take the necessary steps to selectively breed HYPP out of existence before it becomes so widespread that this is impossible.

Can Horses be Tested for HYPP?

A DNA test now has been developed and presently is available at UC Davis to identify horses carrying the defective gene causing HYPP. This blood test detects the presence or absence of the specific genetic mutation which has been found in the extended pedigree of "Impressive" descendants. From a whole blood sample a part of the gene coding for the horse muscle sodium channel is amplified, cut (using enzymes which cut specific DNA sequences), separated by electrophoresis, stained and read. Based on the number of DNA fragments observed, it can be determined whether the horse does not carry this specific mutation (a normal horse), or whether it carries one or two copies of this abnormal gene mutation (heterozygous or homozygous for HYPP, respectively).

How Accurate Is the DNA Blood Test for HYPP?

The test is accurate and reliable based upon research studies. The presence of the genetic mutation has been found to be associated with the disease. In a prior publication (Nature Genetics 1992, Volume 2, p.144-147), we reported upon our testing of 51 related horses which were diagnosed with HYPP based upon documented episodes of muscle fasciculations or paralysis not induced by exercise. All 51 horses were positive (for the sodium channel mutation) using this test. An equal number of related horses which were determined to be normal (based upon potassium challenge and /or free clinical signs of muscle disease) were negative for the gene mutation. We also tested 130 horses from 5 different breeds to determine if the mutation could be found with any frequency in the general horse population. The only horses to date which have shown the mutation have been descendants of "Impressive" but, theoretically, other mutations may exist for which we now have the tools to start looking. The test has proven to be reliably repeatable, as we routinely re-run samples and we have not encountered any discrepancies in results following retesting.

Are False Negative or False Positive HYPP Test Results Possible?

"False" Negatives: We have encountered a rare few horses which show various clinical signs of muscle disease but are negative for the specific gene mutation in the sodium channel. All are privately owned horses which we have been unable to study thoroughly. None of these horses has demonstrated increased blood potassium concentration in association with abnormal clinical signs. Two horses had markedly high muscle enzyme measurements, and one horse had marked muscle damage evident on muscle biopsy. We feel at this time that these horses probably have another muscle disease and not HYPP. We are sequencing the sodium channel for such horses to determine if a second mutation actually exists.

"False" Positives: We have not identified any horses which carry the gene mutation and do not have the disease. Of 142 samples we have received accompanied by clinical information, approximately 30% of the positive horses have not shown abnormal clinical signs (according to their owners). All have been young horses (aged 4 or less). None of these horses has tested negative by other means (such as response to potassium challenge or electromyography).

No diagnostic test is 100% accurate. Errors feasibly could occur by several means. If the test result conflicts with clinical data, then it is possible that the tube of blood was mislabled or mishandled in the laboratory. Retesting should be performed. However, based on the results to date, we can say with confidence that the presence of the mutation is the cause of HYPP, and the test is accurate and reliable. The test is extremely specific, and is accurate for the gene sequence substitution which has been shown to cause HYPP in descendants of "Impressive". Theoretically, it is feasible that a different horse bloodline could have a mutation in another portion of the sodium channel which might produce a similar form of muscle disease and not be detected by this test. If this occurs, careful documentation of the clinical signs and corresponding laboratory results (including serum potassium and muscle-derived enzyme concentrations) should be used to confirm the diagnosis.

Which Horses Should Be Tested for HYPP?

As noted above, the DNA blood test for HYPP identifies the specific genetic mutation which we now know exists in descendants of "Impressive". We presently do not know whether different genetic mutations in other bloodlines also cause HYPP, and the DNA blood test will not identify other such mutations. Further scientific research is required as to other bloodlines. We presently recommend that all descendants of "Impressive" be tested for diagnostic, treatment and breeding purposes.

Are HYPP Test Results Confidential?

Test results are treated as confidential at our facility. We notify the individual who requested the test by mail or fax of the results.

Do Horses Outgrow HYPP?

No. An affected horse is affected for life, but symptomatology does seem to decrease with age. The disease also appears to be associated with periods of stress, transport, concurrent diseases, initiation of training or intensive training, and dietary changes. It is possible that older horses do not experience the same degree of stress as young horses (i.e., they are not subject to the rigorous show schedules of younger horses and their owners have discovered the best diet and management routines for these older horses).

Can Effective Treatment Be Rendered to HYPP-Afflicted Horses?

HYPP in horses can be managed, and incidents of mortality significantly reduced, by proper diet and the administration of medication. While further studies on the mortality rate of HYPP are required, it is important to put HYPP into perspective relative to the many other conditions afflicting horses. Horses afflicted with HYPP, if properly managed, can lead productive, useful lives, and bring their owners many hours of pleasure.

The first step towards effectively managing HYPP is to have the disease properly diagnosed. It can be confused with other conditions, such as "tying up". It is essential that you consult with your veterinarian if you wish to ascertain whether your horse has HYPP. We recommend the DNA blood test as the most effective and reliable means of diagnosing HYPP.

What Emergency Treatment is Recommend For Acute Attacks of HYPP?

For a mild attack (when the horse is not down but has muscle tremors), one or more of the following emergency treatments are recommended.

Exercise the horse, either by walking or longing. Exercise stimulates adrenalin which helps replace potassium inside cells. However, use caution, as the horse could stumble and fall while sustaining muscle tremors.

Feed grain (oats, dry corn-oats-barley or light Karo syrup for glucose supplement). Feeding carbohydrates supplies glucose which stimulates the release of insulin and promotes potassium uptake by cells.

Administer acetazolamide orally (3 mg/kg). This is usually 6 to 8 tablets if the tablets are 250 mg each. Acetazolamide increases potassium excretion from the kidney and also affects glucose metabolism.

For severe attacks, immediate veterinary attention is necessary. If the horse is down and unable to stand, have your veterinarian:

Place intravenous (IV) catheter and administer 23% calcium gluconate (150 cc in 1-2 liters of 5% glucose/500 kg horse). The majority of horses respond immediately to this and stand up.

If no response, follow with 1 L 5% sodium bicarbonate IV (dose is 1 meq/kg).

Still no response, give 3 L 5% dextrose IV, and monitor potassium levels in blood.

All of these treatments help stabilize the muscle membranes and lower blood potassium. Your veterinarian should draw a blood sample prior to initiation of treatment in order to analyze the blood potassium and muscle enzyme concentrations. This is required to confirm that the horse was suffering an attack of HYPP and not something else (i.e., colic).

What Management Practices Will Help control HYPP?

The following management practices will greatly assist in the control of HYPP:

Establish regular feeding and exercise schedule. Avoid fasting and water deprivation. Horses do better if allowed access to a paddock or pasture rather than strict stall confinement. Daily or nightly turnout is helpful.

Adult horses do very well on grass or oat hay alone or pasture. If it is necessary to use alfalfa to balance the ration for growing horses, then mix alfalfa with grass hay or oat hay and grain (oats are best) to decrease potassium content of diet. Feed equal amounts of hay and grain two or three times daily. Avoid rapid changes in diet. Provide access to a white salt block or feed loose salt. Administer acetazolamide (Diamox), a diuretic, (2 mg/kg orally twice a day). Many halter-horse owners continue to feed alfalfa hay as the only roughage but maintain their horses on this drug for all or most of their lives. Please note that this drug is a forbidden substance under AQHA and AHSA regulations.

Inform your veterinarian of HYPP condition prior to any general anesthesia, which may precipitate an episode of paralysis. Maintain acetazolamide therapy before and after surgery or anesthesia.

Use common sense while hauling. Be sure to stop and water horse frequently (every 2 hours). Acetazolamide treatment is helpful to prevent problems.

What Publications Currently Exist on HYPP?

Many persons have requested a list of publications on HYPP. There are numerous publications on the disease in humans. The following are publications on equine HYPP:

Spier, SJ, Carlson, GP, Holliday, TA, et al. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1990; 197: 1009-1017.

Cox, JH and DeBowes, RM. Episodic weakness caused by hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in horses. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet (Equine) 1990; 12:83-89.

Steiss, JE and Naylor, JM. Episodic muscle tremors in a Quarter Horse: Resemblance to hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. Can Vet J 1986; 27:332-335.

Naylor, JM, Robinson, JA, and Bertone, J. Familial incidence of hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in Quarter Horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1992; 3:340-343.

Pickar, JG, Spier, SJ, Snyder, JR, et al. Altered ionic permeability in skeletal muscle from horse with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. Am J Physiol. (Cell Physiol) 1991; 260: C926-C933.

Rudolf, JA, Spier, SJ, Byrns, G, and Hoffman, EP. Linkage of hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in Quarter Horses to the horse adult skeletal muscle sodium channel gene. Animal Genetics 1992: 23: 241-250.

Rudolf, JA, Spier, SJ, Byrns G, et al. Periodic paralysis in Quarter Horses: a sodium channel mutation disseminated by selective breeding. Nature Genetics 1992; 2: 114-147.

Spier, SJ, Carlson, GP. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in certain registered Quarter Horses. The Quarter Horse Journal 1992, pp. 68-69, 120.

Zhou, J, Spier, JS, Beech, J, and Hoffman, EP. Pathophysiology of sodium channelopathies: correlation of normal/mutant mRNA ratios with clinical phenotype in dominantly inherited periodic paralysis. Human Molecular Genetics 1994; 3: 1599-1603.

Other Links and resources:


The Horse: Feeding HYPP Horses

Horses with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP) need careful dietary management to reduce or eliminate its characteristic muscle dysfunction attacks. While diet won't eliminate all signs, it can ...
245k - 35 sec @ 56k Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis in Horses - HYPP Profile

Prevention: Horses with HYPP can be maintained on a low potassium diet, moderate outdoor daily exercise, and strict feeding schedule.
horses.about.com/od/commonproblems/p/hypp.htm · Cached
65k - 9 sec @ 56k Impressive Syndrom

Most affected horses can be controlled quite well with medication and a proper low-potassium diet, therefore, many owners of affected horses considered HYPP a minor inconvenience in light of the line ...
www.foundationhorses.com/impressive_syndrom.htm · Cached
194k - 28 sec @ 56k Management of the HYPP Horse

HYPP positive horses are sensitive to high levels of potassium in their diets, ... Buckeye Maturity/Senior Formula is used as the base feed for HYPP positive diet.
www.buckeyenutrition.com/equinetechnical/EB06%20HYPP.ht... www.buckeyenutrition.com/equinetechnical/EB06%20HYPP.html
Westphalia Ranch - HYPP

Most affected horses can be controlled quite well with medication and a proper low-potassium diet, therefore, many owners of affected horses considered HYPP a minor inconvenience in light of the line ...

Must be managed with diet, exercise and medication. Here are the current recommendations:

Avoid high potassium feeds such as alfalfa hay, brome hay, soybean meal, sugar and beet molasses, and electrolyte and kelp-based supplements (plain salt is okay);
Use low potassium feeds like later cuts of timothy or Bermuda grass hay, along with beet pulp, and grains such as oats, corn, wheat, and barley;
Feed multiple small meals throughout the day so that no one meal exceeds 33 grams of potassium;
Allow the horse turnout time, especially onto grass pasture;
Be aware of trigger factors such as fasting or abrupt changes in diet, anesthesia or heavy sedation, trailer rides, stress, and others;
Check with your VET and use only per VET recommendation - Medication with oral acetazolamide to remove excess potassium from the body.
For more information, or to order a testing kit, visit www.aqha.com.

HYPP, Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis, Impressive Syndrome
Weakness, especially in the hindquarters, trembling, abnormal perspiring, unusual appearance of the third eyelid (nictitating membrane), collapse, distorted vocalizations. During an attack the horse remains alert. Attacks can occur at rest and during work. The horse appears normal after an attack.
An attack can range from mild to severe. During a mild attack a horse may tremble, have muscle cramping, and respiratory distress. Death can occur if the potassium levels become too elevated.
Horses with HYPP can be maintained on a low potassium diet, moderate outdoor daily exercise, and strict feeding schedule. The only way to eliminate HYPP is to not breed horses that carry the HYPP gene. Genetic testing should be done on any horse suspected of having Quarter Horse bloodlines tracing back to the sire "Impressive".
A mild attack can be dealt with by exercising the horse very lightly and feeding a low potassium/ high carbohydrate feed to drive the potassium levels in the blood down. More severe attacks require veterinary care.

Prevention and Control of HYPP Attacks
During a severe attack of HYPP, emergency treatment from a veterinarian is necessary. For long term therapy, many horses can be managed by exercise and diet control alone. Regular exercise and access to a large paddock or pasture is preferred over stall confinement. Maintain a regular feeding schedule, preferably equally spaced, two to three times per day. Avoid rapid changes in feed, such as bringing a horse off pasture grass and immediately switching to alfalfa hay. Most horses improve when the potassium content in the diet is decreased.

An analysis of feed can be very helpful in problem situations. Oat hay contains approximately 1.4% potassium, alfalfa hay - approximately 2.5%, timothy hay - approximately 2.0 - 2.5% potassium and molasses - approximately 6% potassium. The HYPP horses at the Equine Research Laboratory do well on a diet of half alfalfa and half oat hay. Feeding grain such as oats, corn and or barley (each contain only 0.5% potassium) two to three times daily and access to a salt block can be helpful. If dietary management is not sufficient to prevent attacks, then treatment with a diuretic (acetazolamide) can be very helpful. Consult your local veterinarian for proper diagnosis and further recommendations on treatment.

While there is no cure for HYPP, nutritional management can help reduce the frequency and severity of episodes.

Nutritional management strategies are as follows:

· Maintain a consistent potassium level of less than 1% in the total ration. This should include the total amount from everything the horse eats.

· Avoid making any rapid changes in the diet.

· Maintain a consistent feeding schedule.

· Provide access to clean, fresh water at all times.

· Provide free choice access to plain white salt (contains no potassium).

Question: I just bought a horse that has HYPP, what should I be feeding this horse?

Answer: Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis (HYPP) is a muscular disease that causes a disruption in the sodium ion channel’s normal opening and closing, causing uncontrolled sodium influxes to occur. The influxes change the voltage current of muscle cells causing uncontrollable twitching or muscle weakness.

When disruption of the ion channel occurs, there are usually high levels of potassium (K) present in the blood. Therefore, a diet for horses with HYPP should contain potassium at no more that 1.1 % of the total diet.

In order to limit potassium intake, feeds should be carefully chosen. Grass hay contains lower levels of potassium than alfalfa hay, and is therefore a better choice (alfalfa may be needed to balance the diet of young growing horses). Cereal grains are a good feed choice since they contain low levels of potassium. Oats, barley, corn and beet pulp (with no molasses added to it) are excellent feeds for horses with HYPP as they contain less than 1% potassium. Fat can be added to the diet to increase the energy content of the diet.

Molasses, soybean meal, kelp, and electrolytes with added potassium should be avoided as they contain high levels of potassium. Also watch if using a salt lick that it doesn’t have added potassium. Sweet feeds should be avoided due to the molasses content.

Horses with HYPP should be fed at least 3 times a day, and should not receive more than 33 g of potassium at any time. Water should be available at all time and they should have a regular feeding and exercise schedule along with regular turn out.


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